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Software-defined radio

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Software-defined radio (SDR) is a radio communication system where components that have been typically implemented in hardware (e.g. mixers, filters, amplifiers, modulators/demodulators, detectors, etc.) are instead implemented by means of software on a personal computer or embedded system. While the concept of SDR is not new, the rapidly evolving capabilities of digital electronics render practical many processes which used to be only theoretically possible.

Overview

A basic SDR system may consist of a personal computer equipped with a sound card, or other analog-to-digital converter, preceded by some form of RF front end. Significant amounts of signal processing are handed over to the general-purpose processor, rather than being done in special-purpose hardware (electronic circuits). Such a design produces a radio which can receive and transmit widely different radio protocols (sometimes referred to as waveforms) based solely on the software used.

Software radios have significant utility for the military and cell phone services, both of which must serve a wide variety of changing radio protocols in real time.

In the long term, software-defined radios are expected by proponents like the SDRForum (now The Wireless Innovation Forum) to become the dominant technology in radio communications. SDRs, along with software defined antennas are the enablers of the cognitive radio.

A software-defined radio can be flexible enough to avoid the "limited spectrum" assumptions of designers of previous kinds of radios, in one or more ways including:

  • Spread spectrum and ultrawideband techniques allow several transmitters to transmit in the same place on the same frequency with very little interference, typically combined with one or more error detection and correction techniques to fix all the errors caused by that interference.
  • Software defined antennas adaptively "lock onto" a directional signal, so that receivers can better reject interference from other directions, allowing it to detect fainter transmissions.
  • Cognitive radio techniques: each radio measures the spectrum in use and communicates that information to other cooperating radios, so that transmitters can avoid mutual interference by selecting unused frequencies.
  • Dynamic transmitter power adjustment, based on information communicated from the receivers, lowering transmit power to the minimum necessary, reducing the near-far problem and reducing interference to others, and extending battery life in portable equipment.
  • Wireless mesh network where every added radio increases total capacity and reduces the power required at any one node. Each node only transmits loudly enough for the message to hop to the nearest node in that direction, reducing near-far problem and reducing interference to others.

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Tawaran Khas untuk lepasan SPM/STPM/STAM/Diploma/Matrikulasi/Asasi Sempena Ulang Tahun ke 20 ICYM

  1. Biasiswa Penginapan dan Pengangkutan bagi Program Diploma dan Ijazah
  2. Pembiayaan/Penajaan Penuh daripada PTPK bagi Program Sijil

Permohonan:

Langkah 1, Biasiswa - Klik Sini
Langkah 2Pilih Program

Foundation / Diploma Foundation In Information Technology Foundation In Management Diploma In Entrepreneurship Diploma In Marketing Diploma In Accountancy Diploma In Islamic Financial Planning Diploma In Culinary Arts Diploma In Hotel Management Diploma In Tourism Management Diploma In Animation Technology Diploma In Media Technology Diploma In Theatrical Arts And Technology Diploma In Multimedia Technology Diploma In Information Technology Diploma In Computer Networking Diploma In Cyber Security Diploma In Electrical Technology Diploma In Industrial Electronic Technology Diploma In Early Childhood Education Diploma In Guidance & Counseling Diploma In Aircraft Maintenance Technology Kerjasama Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Diploma In Technology Management (UTM) Diploma In Technology Management (Accounting) (UTM) Diploma In Computer Science (Information Technology) (UTM) Sarjana Muda Sains (Pembangunan Sumber Manusia) (UTM) Sarjana Muda Pengurusan (Pemasaran) (UTM) Sarjana Muda Sains Komputer (Perisian Grafik & Multimedia) (UTM) Sarjana Muda Sains Komputer (Rangkaian & Keselamatan) (UTM) Professional License Aircraft Maintenance License Technician (AML-T) DCAM-PT-66 CAT A1 Aircraft Maintenance License Engineer (AML-E) DCAM-PT-66 CAT B1-1 Sijil Kemahiran Malaysia (SKM) / Short Course Lukisan Pelan Senibina / Juruteknik Elektrik / Teknologi Automotif / Pembuatan Pastri Program Tajaan Ground Handling Management (GHM) PTPTN Bahagian Pengurusan Kemasukan Pelajar UPU KWSP YAYASAN PENERAJU UPEN PTPK TAPEM YAYASAN NEGERI ZAKAT MARA UNIVERSITI ISLAM ANTARABANGSA MALAYSIA (IIUM) UNIVERSITI KEBANGSAAN MALAYSIA (UKM) UNIVERSITI KEBANGSAAN MALAYSIA (UKM) UNIVERSITI MALAYA UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA KELANTAN (UMK) UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG (UMP) UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS (UNIMAP) UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SABAH (UMS) UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK (UNIMAS) (KOTA SAMARAHAN) UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU (UMT) UNIVERSITI PENDIDIKAN SULTAN IDRIS (UPSI) UNIVERSITI PERTAHANAN NASIONAL MALAYSIA UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA (UPM) UNIVERSITI SAINS ISLAM MALAYSIA (USIM) UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA (USM) UNIVERSITI SULTAN ZAINAL ABIDIN (UNISZA) UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA (UTEM) UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA (UTM) UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA (UTHM) UNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA (UUM)

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  • ong 65e06Throughout my studies in ICYM, I have encountered many challenges and obstacles. However, I was lucky enough to be given the opportunity to gain knowledge here and also to engage in co-curriculum activities organized by the college. For me, ICYM is the best choice. 

    Ong Wei Sin • Diploma in Marketing • Best Student

  • fadzlina c3e6cI think ICYM has done a great job, especially during my student’s life in campus. I like the multi-cultural environment in ICYM that depicts the feel of 1 Malaysia. During my studies in ICYM, I have became more confident, able to improve my skills and possessed the sense of believing my self. As a whole ICYM was able to overtime any locking. I will definitely introduce ICYM to my friends.

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  • asyrafabMy learning experience in ICYM was very good and interesting and I can learn a lot about animation technology. Lectures in ICYM are very experienced in this industry compared to other colleges. They taught us all the knowledge about animation so the that we can improve our experience in the animation industry today.

    Mohd Asyraf Abd Rahman • Diploma in Animation, Lead Animator, Les’ Copaque Production

  • leekamThere is always a motivating environment in ICYM drives me to success. Spending time together with lectures and friends enable us to learn our own mistakes. Learning experience has turned me into an all-rounded individual. It was an extraordinary experience for me.

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  • asyrafI am grateful to be given the opportunity to study in ICYM as I am able to increase my knowledge in Animation, theoretically and practically. ICYM is definitely the right choice for those who want to learn in the field of Animation because the college has provided the complete and conducive environment for learning as well as practical experiences. 

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  • intanBecoming an ICYM graduate is a prestigious acknowledgement. I would like to thank all my lecturers for their dedications and self esteems, as well as having the reputation as honourable academicians and educators. I am really touched by their personality and professionalism shown. Thank you for guiding and transforming us for what we are today.

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