The Raspberry Pi
The Raspberry Pi is a series of credit card-sized single-board computers developed in the United Kingdom by the Raspberry Pi Foundation to promote the teaching of basic computer science in schools and developing countries.
Several generations of Raspberry Pis have been released. The first generation (retrospectively known as the Raspberry Pi 1) was released in February 2012 in basic Model A and a higher specification Model B. Improved A+ and B+ models were released a year later. The Raspberry Pi 2 was released in February 2015 and Raspberry Pi 3 in February 2016. These boards are priced between US$20 and 35. A cut down "compute" model was released in April 2014, and a Raspberry Pi Zero with smaller size and limited input/output (I/O), general-purpose input/output (GPIO), abilities released in November 2015 for US$5.
The original Raspberry Pi and Raspberry Pi 2 are manufactured through licensed manufacturing agreements with Newark element14 (Premier Farnell), RS Components and Egoman.The hardware is the same across all manufacturers. The default firmware is closed source, while an unofficial open source is available.
All models feature a Broadcom system on a chip (SoC), which includes an ARM compatible central processing unit (CPU) and an on chip graphics processing unit (GPU, a VideoCore IV). CPU speed ranges from 700 MHz to 1.2 GHz for the Pi 3 and on board memory range from 256 MB to 1 GB RAM. Secure Digital SD cards are used to store the operating system and program memory in either the SDHC or MicroSDHC sizes. Most boards have between one and four USB slots, HDMI and composite video output, and a 3.5 mm phone jack for audio. Lower level output is provided by a number of GPIO pins which support common protocols like I²C. The B-models have an 8P8C Ethernet port and the Pi 3 has on board Wi-Fi 802.11n and Bluetooth.
The Foundation provides Raspbian, a Debian-based Linux distribution for download, as well as third party Ubuntu, Windows 10 IOT Core, RISC OS, and specialised media center distributions. It promotes Python and Scratch as the main programming language, with support for many other languages.
In February 2016, the Raspberry Pi Foundation announced that they had sold eight million devices, making it the best-selling UK personal computer, ahead of the Amstrad PCW. Sales reached ten million in September 2016. - Wikipedia
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