The rotary engine was an early type of internal-combustion engine, usually designed with an odd number of cylinders per row in a radial configuration, in which the crankshaft remained stationary in operation, with the entire crankcase and its attached cylinders rotating around it as a unit. Its main application was in aviation, although it also saw use before its primary aviation role, in a few early motorcycles and automobiles.
This type of engine was widely used as an alternative to conventional inline engines (straight or V) during World War I and the years immediately preceding that conflict. It has been described as "a very efficient solution to the problems of power output, weight, and reliability".
By the early 1920s, however, the inherent limitations of this type of engine had rendered it obsolete, with the power output increasingly going into overcoming the air-resistance of the spinning engine itself. The rotating mass of the engine also caused significant gyroscopic precession: depending on the type of aircraft, this produced stability and control problems, especially for inexperienced pilots. Another factor in the demise of the rotary was the fundamentally inefficient total-loss oiling system, caused by the need to aspirate the fuel/air mixture through the hollow crankshaft and crankcase along with the lubricating medium, as in a two-stroke engine.
A rotary engine is essentially a standard Otto cycle engine, but instead of having a fixed cylinder block with rotating crankshaft as with a conventional radial engine, the crankshaft remains stationary and the entire cylinder block rotates around it. In the most common form, the crankshaft was fixed solidly to the airframe, and the propeller was simply bolted to the front of the crankcase.
Three key factors contributed to the rotary engine's success at the time:
- Smooth running: Rotaries delivered power very smoothly because (relative to the engine mounting point) there are no reciprocating parts, and the relatively large rotating mass of the crankcase/cylinders (as a unit) acted as a flywheel.
- Weight advantage: many conventional engines had to have heavy flywheels added to smooth out power impulses and reduce vibration. Rotary engines gained a substantial power-to-weight ratio advantage by having no need for an added flywheel.
- Improved cooling: when the engine was running the rotating crankcase/cylinder assembly created its own fast-moving cooling airflow, even with the aircraft at rest.
Most rotary engines were arranged with the cylinders pointing outwards from a single crankshaft, in the same general form as a radial, but there were also rotary boxer engines and even one-cylinder rotaries.
Like radial engines, rotaries were generally built with an odd number of cylinders (usually either 7 or 9), so that a consistent every-other-piston firing order could be maintained, to provide smooth running. Rotary engines with an even number of cylinders were mostly of the "two row" type.
Distinction between "rotary" and "radial" engines
Rotary and radial engines look strikingly similar when they are not running and can easily be confused, since both have cylinders arranged radially around a central crankshaft. Unlike the rotary engine, however, radial engines use a conventional rotating crankshaft in a fixed engine block. - Wikipedia
Tawaran Khas untuk lepasan SPM/STPM/STAM/Diploma/Matrikulasi/Asasi Sempena Ulang Tahun ke 20 ICYM
- Biasiswa Penginapan dan Pengangkutan bagi Program Diploma dan Ijazah
- Pembiayaan/Penajaan Penuh daripada PTPK bagi Program Sijil
Foundation / Diploma Foundation In Information Technology Foundation In Management Diploma In Entrepreneurship Diploma In Marketing Diploma In Accountancy Diploma In Islamic Financial Planning Diploma In Culinary Arts Diploma In Hotel Management Diploma In Tourism Management Diploma In Animation Technology Diploma In Media Technology Diploma In Theatrical Arts And Technology Diploma In Multimedia Technology Diploma In Information Technology Diploma In Computer Networking Diploma In Cyber Security Diploma In Electrical Technology Diploma In Industrial Electronic Technology Diploma In Early Childhood Education Diploma In Guidance & Counseling Diploma In Aircraft Maintenance Technology Kerjasama Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Diploma In Technology Management (UTM) Diploma In Technology Management (Accounting) (UTM) Diploma In Computer Science (Information Technology) (UTM) Sarjana Muda Sains (Pembangunan Sumber Manusia) (UTM) Sarjana Muda Pengurusan (Pemasaran) (UTM) Sarjana Muda Sains Komputer (Perisian Grafik & Multimedia) (UTM) Sarjana Muda Sains Komputer (Rangkaian & Keselamatan) (UTM) Professional License Aircraft Maintenance License Technician (AML-T) DCAM-PT-66 CAT A1 Aircraft Maintenance License Engineer (AML-E) DCAM-PT-66 CAT B1-1 Sijil Kemahiran Malaysia (SKM) / Short Course Lukisan Pelan Senibina / Juruteknik Elektrik / Teknologi Automotif / Pembuatan Pastri Program Tajaan Ground Handling Management (GHM) PTPTN Bahagian Pengurusan Kemasukan Pelajar UPU KWSP YAYASAN PENERAJU UPEN PTPK TAPEM YAYASAN NEGERI ZAKAT MARA UNIVERSITI ISLAM ANTARABANGSA MALAYSIA (IIUM) UNIVERSITI KEBANGSAAN MALAYSIA (UKM) UNIVERSITI KEBANGSAAN MALAYSIA (UKM) UNIVERSITI MALAYA UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA KELANTAN (UMK) UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG (UMP) UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS (UNIMAP) UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SABAH (UMS) UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK (UNIMAS) (KOTA SAMARAHAN) UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU (UMT) UNIVERSITI PENDIDIKAN SULTAN IDRIS (UPSI) UNIVERSITI PERTAHANAN NASIONAL MALAYSIA UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA (UPM) UNIVERSITI SAINS ISLAM MALAYSIA (USIM) UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA (USM) UNIVERSITI SULTAN ZAINAL ABIDIN (UNISZA) UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA (UTEM) UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA (UTM) UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA (UTHM) UNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA (UUM)