Nginx (stylized as NGINX, NGiИX or nginx) is a web server which can also be used as a reverse proxy, load balancer and HTTP cache. The software was created by Igor Sysoev and first publicly released in 2004. A company of the same name was founded in 2011 to provide support.
Nginx is free and open-source software, released under the terms of a BSD-like license. A large fraction of web servers use NGINX, often as a load balancer.
Nginx can be deployed to serve dynamic HTTP content on the network using FastCGI, SCGI handlers for scripts, WSGI application servers or Phusion Passenger modules, and it can serve as a software load balancer.
Nginx uses an asynchronous event-driven approach to handling requests. Nginx's modular event-driven architecture can provide more predictable performance under high loads.
HTTP proxy and Web server features
- Ability to handle more than 10,000 simultaneous connections with a low memory footprint (~2.5 MB per 10k inactive HTTP keep-alive connections)
- Handling of static files, index files and auto-indexing
- Reverse proxy with caching
- Load balancing with in-band health checks
- TLS/SSL with SNI and OCSP stapling support, via OpenSSL.
- FastCGI, SCGI, uWSGI support with caching
- Name- and IP address-based virtual servers
- WebSockets and HTTP/1.1 Upgrade (101 Switching Protocols)
Mail proxy features
- TLS/SSL support
- STARTTLS support
- SMTP, POP3, and IMAP proxy
- Authentication using an external HTTP server
- Other features include upgrading executable and configuration without client connections loss, and a module-based architecture with both core and third-party module support.
The paid Plus product includes additional features such as advanced load balancing and access to an expanded suite of metrics for performance monitoring.
Performance vs Apache
Nginx was written with an explicit goal of outperforming the Apache web server. Out of the box, serving static files, Nginx uses dramatically less memory than Apache, and can handle roughly four times more requests per second. This performance boost comes at a cost of decreased flexibility, such as the ability to override systemwide access settings on a per-file basis (Apache accomplishes this with an .htaccess file, while Nginx has no such feature built in). Formerly, adding third party modules to nginx required recompiling the application from source with the modules statically linked. This was partially overcome in version 1.9.11 with the addition of dynamic module loading. However, the modules still must be compiled at the same time as nginx, and not all modules are compatible with this system—some require the older static linking process. - Wikipedia
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